In the next three paragraphs, the three biological codes will be considered in detail. What most studies seem to agree on is that questions appear to have a higher pitch register than statements. This view is also voiced in more recent work on methodology. In the end of the experiment, subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire on their language background and social background. The last pitch accent in the final intermediate phrase appears to be a strong predictor of boundary tone. In 66 cases, the combination of these variables yielded identical stimuli.

Notice that analyses do not differ along this dimension in a categorical fashion. Het programma biedt in totaal plaats aan vier promovendi, waarvan een promovendus wordt aangesteld bij de afdeling Experimentele Psychologie van de RUG. This can be considered a Type-3 difference Figure 3. It is also known that languages can have more than one grammaticalised form for a given meaning. The exploitation of the connection between pitch and the size of the vocalizer is identified as the Frequency Code Ohala ,

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The tonic syllable is marked by underscore. I would also like to seize this opportunity to express my gratitude to Min Ja, whose complete confidence in me has given me strength and support over the past years, Anne Cutler, Esther Grabe uy Eric Kellerman for their valuable advice on my career development when I was undecided about how to pursue my interests in research, Dengyong Gong, Fengtong Zhang and Wim Zonneveld for their understanding and encouragement.

The Production Code, proposed as part of his biologically motivated theory of paralinguistic formuoier meaning, is the communicative exploitation of the physiological condition that the generation of subglottal air pressure responsible for the vibration of the vocal cords is tied to the exhalation phase of the breathing process and there is a fall- off moyivatie subglottal air pressure towards the end of the exhalation phase.

The proposal by Gussenhoven and that by Pierrehumbert and Hirschberg are two recent discourse-oriented treatments of moitvatie meaning in the autosegmental framework.


Second, the phonetic implementation of the pitch contour may also convey meaning, usually independently of its identity. Both primary contours and precontours are the units of tune meaning. U kunt zowel mondeling als schriftelijk gemakkelijk communiceren in het Nederlands en in het Engels. For example, Willems observed that Dutch speakers used a much narrower pitch range than British English speakers when reading sentences in English. However, for two reasons, earlier discussion about this issue is not particularly illuminating in the context of paralinguistic intonational meaning.

Each of these four analyses included one between-subject factor, Language 2 levelsand three within-subject factors, Speech Act 3 levelsPitch Contour 2 levelsand Pitch Register 5 levels for the Register data or Pitch Span 5 levels for the Span data. Grammatical meanings of the primary tones proposed in Halliday A Type-2 difference between two languages means that they display opposite relations between perceived meaning and pitch variation.

It addresses research question 4. He included two phonological levels in the representation of pitch contours, a surface level and an underlying level, whereas Pierrehumbert had one phonological level, i.

De genomineerden voor de NVP Dissertatieprijs zijn: These three conditions and their corresponding interpretations are referred to as the Frequency Code Ohala, the Effort Code, and the Production Code Gussenhoven More than 5, students are enrolled in a broad range of undergraduate and graduate programmes.

In the next paragraph, the Frequency Code will be discussed in detail because it is central to the present investigation. The prehead refers to any syllables preceding the stressed syllable of the first accented word.

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The Netherlands has an outstanding track record in the language sciences. First, the pitch contour, or specific parts of the pitch contour, may convey meaning.

Check this link for more information on this job offer and how to apply: Chapters 2 and 4 are adapted versions of published manuscripts. This result indicates that the increase in the perceived surprise from level 1 to a higher level of Peak Height found for Dutch listeners was not found for British English listeners.


Outline of the thesis Chapter 2 addresses research question 1 with the aim to establish whether there is universality in the perception of paralinguistic intonational meaning. The interaction of End Pitch by Language is thus not shown for this sentence type.

They were given phonetic transcriptions, and were asked to read the utterances with a non-emphatic stress on the penultimate syllable.

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Rietveld, Gussenhoven, Wichmann and Grabe first put forward the idea that standard pitch range can influence the perception of intonational meaning. Language was found to be significant in respect of each meaning. SPRINT Work zal ook leiden tot economische ontwikkeling omdat bedrijven die de innovatieve technieken leveren hun curriculu, op de Europese en mondiale groeimarkt aanzienlijk zullen versterken.


The pretonic is present only if there is at least one foot before the beginning of the tonic. Support for this can be found in languages where the pattern of ‘rising questions and falling statements’ breaks down.

Missing values were noted down separately. Subjects were instructed by means of written instructions in their native language see Appendices and to judge each stimulus how confident the speaker sounded during one session of the experiment, and how friendly the speaker sounded during the other session of the experiment, and recorded their judgments on the VASs.

Recently Gussenhoven proposed that intonational meaning is both universal and language-specific at the same time for any language; the universality is located in the paralinguistic meanings of pitch variation and the language- specificity in the linguistic meanings.

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