Doctor Toubia also describes the cultural purposes of female circumcision. The author teamed up with a prestige documentary creator to create a documentary to show people exactly what female genital mutilation is and how it affects many women. Sourcebook on Violence against Women. The author explains that this tradition is still practiced because it is embedded deep into many cultures and is seen as socially acceptable. The article notes that while there is no rule requiring it, some judges have permitted women to remain in the United States to protect daughters from female genital mutilation.

It produces emotional and physical wounds that may never heal. This brought the issue to the attention to many Americans. Commonly, the West referred to the practice as female circumcision, which the author suggest is misleading. The author argues that one reason for this is because of fear that doing so will dramatically increase the amounts of immigrants seeking refugee status. The article begins with an examination of cultural bias, and how women in the western world who are trying to incorporate the ban of female genital mutilation into the feminist agenda don’t really understand what the procedure is.

Gifford, ” The Courage to Blaspheme”: However, the author shows that often the reasons asserted are not persuasive reasons for allowing this practice to continue. Sexual Violence and Exploitation Women of Bosnia: This practice puts the blame on the woman for a violent attack, and treats it as if it were consensual sex.

Female Genital Mutilation

Doctor Toubia describes in detail the actual process of female genital mutilation. Many African women look at genital mutilation as a duty that must be borne. To combat the hygiene justification, the author gives real life examples of women who have had sometimes deadly results from infibulation. In bibliohraphy Name of Ritual: It pinpointed exactly where female genital mutilation is occurring and what cultures are practicing it.


This explanation begins with a look at legislation that was proposed in the United States to have the practice be regarded as child abuse. The author examines the effectiveness of laws banning female genital mutilation in the context of the British law. In this conclusion is a description of a nineteen year old who flew to America seeking asylum.

Most importantly in this article, Doctor Toubia describes the physical complications associated with this practice. The author teamed up with a prestige documentary creator to create a annohated to show people exactly what female genital mutilation is and how it affects many women.

There have been reports that the number of genital mutilations have been decreasing in the last couple of years. The article describes the unique medical needs of women who have undergone the various procedures, and how doctors should deal with these women on both a medical and emotional level. These facts included the description of what female circumcision is as well as many other factors associated with it.

annotated bibliography on fgm

However, the author believes many of these can be combated with legitimate justifications. Links and Annotated Bibliographies. It proceeds to explain the different types of female genital mutilation that occur and how they are classified.

It produces emotional and physical wounds that may never heal. The focus of this article is the legal battle of an mother seeking to suspend her deportation to protect her two daughters from female genital mutilation.


Female Genital Mutilation

Doctor Toubia argues that physicians should not perform reinfibulation on women because it is physically harmful. Women’s Studies Links to search engines, databases, organizations, internet resources, publications, and other resources, historical sites, health-related sites, etc, can be found at: This is bibliofraphy because even in countries which have made the practice illegal, it still continues.

In this background, the author explores the justifications given by the supports of this practice. This article describes in detail the procedures and the resulting lives of women who undergo some type of female genital mutilation. This publication provided key information and knowledge about many different aspects associated with female genital mutilation.

Some of the justifications include “tradition, religion, the sexual control bibliogrraphy women, and social acceptance.

annotated bibliography on fgm

They explain that there is usually a set person designated to perform all of the circumcisions who also acts as a midwife during the births in the community.

The author noted that many women request this procedure to increase the sexual pleasure for their husbands.

Instead, women and their spouse should be encouraged to attend counseling about its harmful effects to prevent them from going to a lay practitioner. This article was helpful because it developed many areas of the process of female genital mutilation. Physical Violence Against Women.

annotated bibliography on fgm

She won the right to stay in America in order to protect her daughters.

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